Thursday, November 4, 2021

1960 U-2 incident Corona Satellite

 1960 U-2 incident Corona Satelitte 

On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep inside Soviet territory.

Sun, 1 May 1960 = 4th of Iyyar, 5720
ד׳ בְּאִיָיר תש״כ
🇮🇱 Yom HaZikaron 🇮🇱
Parashat Achrei Mot-Kedoshim
1️⃣9️⃣ 19th day of the Omer1️⃣9️⃣

Yom HaZikaron 1960 / יוֹם הַזִּכָּרוֹן 5720
Yom HaZikaron (Israeli Memorial Day) for Hebrew Year 5720 began on Saturday, 30 April 1960 and ended on Sunday, 1 May 1960.

Israeli Memorial Day. Note that Hebcal displays modern holidays like Yom HaZikaron according to the Israeli schedule. Although Yom Hazikaron is normally observed on the 4th of Iyyar, it may be moved earlier or postponed if observance of the holiday (or Yom HaAtzma'ut, which always follows it) would conflict with Shabbat.

Sun, 1 May 1960 = 4th of Iyyar, 5720 4/2/5720

 CORONA started under the name "Discoverer" as part of the WS-117L satellite reconnaissance and protection program of the U.S. Air Force in 1956. The WS-117L was based on recommendations and designs from the RAND Corporation.[2] The primary goal of the program was to develop a film-return photographic satellite to replace the U-2 spyplane in surveilling the Sino-Soviet Bloc, determining the disposition and speed of production of Soviet missiles and long-range bombers assets. The CORONA program was also used to produce maps and charts for the Department of Defense and other U.S. government mapping programs.[3]

The CORONA project was pushed forward rapidly following the shooting down of a U-2 spy plane over the Soviet Union on 1 May 1960.[4]

CORONA ultimately encompassed eight separate but overlapping series of satellites (dubbed "Keyhole" or KH [5]), launched from 1959 to 1972.[6]: 231  CORONA was complemented and ultimately succeeded by the higher resolution KH-7 Gambit and KH-8 Gambit 3 series of satellites.[7]

The CORONA satellites were designated KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-4A and KH-4B. KH stood for "Key Hole" or "Keyhole" (Code number 1010),[5] with the name being an analogy to the act of spying into a person's room by peering through their door's keyhole. The incrementing number indicated changes in the surveillance instrumentation, such as the change from single-panoramic to double-panoramic cameras. The "KH" naming system was first used in 1962 with KH-4, the earlier numbers being applied retroactively. There were 144 CORONA satellites launched, of which 102 returned usable photographs.

The CORONA program was officially classified top secret until 1992. On 22 February 1995, the photos taken by the CORONA satellites, and also by two contemporary programs (ARGON and KH-6 LANYARD) were declassified under an Executive Order signed by President Bill Clinton.[67] The further review by photo experts of the "obsolete broad-area film-return systems other than CORONA" mandated by President Clinton's order led to the declassification in 2002 of the photos from the KH-7 and the KH-9 low-resolution cameras.[68]

The declassified imagery has since been used by a team of scientists from the Australian National University to locate and explore ancient habitation sites, pottery factories, megalithic tombs, and Palaeolithic archaeological remains in northern Syria.[69][70] Similarly, scientists at Harvard have used the imagery to identify prehistoric traveling routes in Mesopotamia.[71][72]

The U.S. Geological Survey hosts more than 860,000 images of the Earth’s surface from between 1960 and 1972 from CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD programs.

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