Friday, February 7, 2020

Swiss names....Hoover

Hoover (Hover, Hoober, Huber, Huver, Hueber) family

Hoover is a Swiss family name found among the Mennonites of Germany and North America. A Swiss Anabaptist named Ulrich Huber was executed in 1538, and Hans Huber, a German Anabaptist, was put to death in 1542 at Wasserburg on the Inn. The Hutterite Chronicle contains the martyr record of Wolfgang Hueber, who was executed in Bavaria in 1559. A number of Huebers are mentioned in the Chronicle; there is record, for example, of Caspar Hueber, who was ordained as a preacher in 1557.

More than 50 Hubers immigrated to North America before the Revolutionary War, and these Hubers represented at least four different faith traditions: Mennonite, Lutheran, German Reformed, and Moravian. The ancestor of many of the Mennonite Hoovers was the immigrant Hans Huber (ca. 1670-1750), a Swiss who was married to Margaret Koch. After living for a period in the Palatinate he came to North America in 1710, or soon thereafter, and settled at Mill Creek, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. By the 1950s the Hoover family was spread rather widely across the United States and Ontario. Many Hoovers have been ordained in Mennonite Church (MC) conferences. As of 1956, more than a dozen Hoovers had been ordained in the Mennonite Conference of Ontario (now part of Mennonite Church Eastern Canada), and a smaller number in Indiana. Bishop Martin Hoover (MC) settled in Elkhart County, Indiana in 1845, four years before his death; he had emigrated from Europe and had lived in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Markham, Ontario, and Ohio. Noah S. Hoover (MC) served as a deacon in the Yellow Creek, Indiana congregation from 1887 until his death in 1913. The name Hoover also occurs among the Brethren in Christ. Their second Overseer in the Indiana District was a Martin Hoover who evidently served in the second half of the 19th century. Paul Hoover was a minister of the Old Order Mennonites (Wisler) near Goshen, Indiana.,_Hoober,_Huber,_Huver,_Hueber)_family

Herbert Hoover

US president grew from Swiss roots

Herbert Hoover, descended from Swiss migrants, led a life of action and innovation well before becoming a United States president linked to the Great Depression.

A pioneer in the field of humanitarian aid, Hoover had a family that extended beyond his Iowa and Oregon upbringing to reach canton Aargau and the town of Oberkulm.

He is one of several influential people in American history whose family trees had roots in Switzerland.

After graduating from Stanford University with a degree in geology, Hoover explored veins of gold in Australia, worked in China, consulted internationally and published books on minerals and the mining industry. In 1905 he founded the Zinc Corporation, which later became the Rio Tinto group.

During the First World War and immediately afterward, Hoover helped repatriate some 120,000 Americans in Europe. He stepped up humanitarian efforts and organised convoys bound for Belgium and central Europe, then Bolshevik Russia and defeated Germany.

In 1919 he founded the Hoover Institution for the study of “war, revolution and peace”. Then, two years later, he was appointed Secretary of Commerce and worked to transform what was then considered a minor post into a major portfolio.

“Hoover thinks in terms of making the American economy a national economy, not a collection of regional economies,” said Matthew Schaefer, an archivist at the Hoover Presidential Library in West Branch, Iowa, Hoover’s hometown.

“As soon as he comes to Commerce, he doubles the size of the staff, gets the department more active in foreign trade, organises conferences to support emerging industries such as aviation, Hollywood movies and radio broadcasting.”

“He campaigns as a master of emergencies and crises and he wins the election in a landslide in 1928,” Schaefer said. The message was well timed: Soon Wall Street would collapse, unemployment would rise and Hoover would underestimate the impact.

“His initial reaction to the Crash was that it was just a correction and the fundamentals of the economy were sound and that it would only bleed off the speculators,” Schaefer said. “But that view only held for about a month.”

Hoover’s legacy remains stained by the fact that he took office as the Depression hit. But his influence lived on.

Roosevelt, his rival and successor, nominated one of Hoover’s secretaries to the Department of Defense during the Second World War. President Harry Truman solicited his help in directing aid to Europe after the war. President Dwight Eisenhower would get Hoover’s son, Herbert Hoover Jr., to serve as a special envoy to Iran and later as Under-Secretary of State.

Man of action
1914 -18 – Organises US humanitarian aid during the First World War

1919 – sets up Hoover Institution at Stanford

1921-8 – trade minister in the Harding and Coolidge administrations

1929-33 – 31st president of the United States

1932 – Beaten by Franklin D. Roosevelt in presidential election

Geologist, mining engineer, businessman, author.

end of infobox
Swiss origins
1738 – The first of Hoover’s ancestors to settle in America was Andreas Huber.  The family came from Oberkulm, canton Aargau.

1874 – Herbert Hoover born in West Branch, a village in Iowa. Following the deaths of his father and mother, Hoover was brought up by an uncle in Oregon.

1964 – Hoover dies in New York.

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman, and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U.S. Food Administration, and served as the 3rd U.S. Secretary of Commerce.

Herbert Hoover was born on August 10, 1874 in West Branch, Iowa.[a] His father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German, Swiss, and English ancestry.[1] Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Ontario, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch, Jesse and Hulda were Quakers.[2] As a child, Hoover consistently attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible.[3] Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.[4] Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother, Theodore, and his younger sister, May, as orphans

The Mysterious Origins of J. Edgar Hoover

J Edgar Hoover

John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States and an American law enforcement administrator. He was appointed as the director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI's predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director for another 37 years until his death in 1972 at the age of 77. Hoover has been credited with building the FBI into a larger crime-fighting agency than it was at its inception and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories.

John Edgar Hoover was born on New Year's Day 1895 in Washington, D.C., to Anna Marie (née Scheitlin; 1860–1938), who was of Swiss-German descent, and Dickerson Naylor Hoover Sr. (1856–1921), chief of the printing division of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, formerly a plate maker for the same organization.[6] Dickerson Hoover was of English and German ancestry. Hoover's maternal great-uncle, John Hitz, was a Swiss honorary consul general to the United States.[7] Among his family, he was the closest to his mother, who was their moral guide and disciplinarian.[8]

Hoover was born in a house on the present site of Capitol Hill United Methodist Church, located on Seward Square near Eastern Market in Washington's Capitol Hill neighborhood.[9] A stained glass window in the church is dedicated to him. Hoover did not have a birth certificate filed upon his birth, although it was required in 1895 in Washington. Two of his siblings did have certificates, but Hoover's was not filed until 1938 when he was 43.[7]

Hoover lived in Washington, D.C. his entire life. He attended Central High School, where he sang in the school choir, participated in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program, and competed on the debate team.[4] During debates, he argued against women getting the right to vote and against the abolition of the death penalty.[10] The school newspaper applauded his "cool, relentless logic."[11] Hoover stuttered as a boy, which he overcame by teaching himself to talk quickly—a style that he carried through his adult career. He eventually spoke with such ferocious speed that stenographers had a hard time following him.[12]

Document vault reveals FBI spied on Switzerland

FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover personally knew of the spy operation against Switzerland

(US Library of Congress)
Newly unearthed documents from the Second World War era show that the American Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was spying on Swiss diplomats during and after the war, even managing to break Swiss code to find out about Nazi gold and other secret affairs.

Under the United States’ Freedom of Information Act, the SonntagsZeitung and Le Matin Dimanche newspapers recently gained access to previously confidential files from the FBI – which reveal that the agency spied on diplomats from numerous countries, including Switzerland, during and immediately after the Second World War.

As of today, the documents are publically available on the website, a reference to the secret room in FBI headquarters where the many tons of secret files on other countries were kept. Then-FBI Director Herbert Hoover ordered them hidden there in 1948 to escape scrutiny by the US Congress, which was not informed of the spying project. Eventually, the huge volume of files kept there even endangered the structural integrity of the building.

A document from June 17, 1942, describes how FBI investigators were able to break the Swiss code through photographs of encoded diplomatic documents obtained from a “top secret source”. The code was then broken in an FBI lab at the US Justice Department in Washington, D.C. The Americans were able to read Swiss code until at least 1950, when the code written with the Enigma encoding machine was replaced by code written with a Swiss-invented machine known as “Nema”.

The broken code helped FBI officials find the route of a Swiss High Seas Fleet, and Hoover distributed the code throughout the Special Intelligence Service so that further Swiss cables might be intercepted.

The bureau is also believed to have opened Swiss diplomatic letters, a practice illegal under international law. This is likely how the FBI found out that International Committee of the Red Cross delegate Jean de Wattewille used the Swiss diplomatic mail service illegally to smuggle private letters from third parties to addresses in Europe. De Wattewille was later interrogated in New York and an acquaintance of his was convicted of spying by the United States.

Nazi gold

After the war, the FBI was able to use the broken Swiss code to intercept and decipher documents revealing the amount Switzerland was willing to pay for Nazi gold hidden in Swiss banks.

When Swiss Minister Walter Stucki arrived in Washington for negotiations over the final amount in 1946, the Americans already knew the Swiss negotiating position and got them to pay the maximum amount of $250 million – an amount worth CHF1.3 billion today.

Swiss Village completed by J.Edgar Hoover. Picture Craft. Courtesy of Dwight D. Eisenhower Library. The Stephens Collection, a gallery of paint by number and amateur works by President Eisenhower's administration officials, included this Picture Craft subject completed by Federal Bureau of Investigation director J. Edgar Hoover.

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