Wednesday, July 29, 2020

They're going to put something really NASTY in our food. It will be in plants and seeds too!!!!!!!!! HYDROGEL....

They're going to put something really NASTY in our food. It will be in plants and seeds too!!!!!!!!! HYDROGEL....

Conductive Hydrogel Journal of Agricultural Science

Conductive Hydrogels—A Novel Material: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives


A conductive hydrogel is a kind of polymer material having substantial potential applications with various properties, including high toughness, self-recoverability, electrical conductivity, transparency, freezing resistance, stimuli responsiveness, stretchability, self-healing, and strain sensitivity. Herein, according to the current research status of conductive hydrogels, properties of conductive hydrogels, preparation methods of different conductive hydrogels, and their application in different fields, such as sensor and actuator fabrication, biomedicine, and soft electronics, are introduced. Furthermore, the development direction and application prospects of conductive hydrogels are proposed.

Hydrogels were synthesized by a copolymerization reaction of nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) with acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) and N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as a cross-linker and their absorption performance as a function of composition was determined. Hydrogels with 4% by weight CNF had swelling of about 250 g/g and with 7% CNF about 200 g/g for water. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the reaction pathways and the electronic properties of the cellulose and monomers were investigated through density functional theory calculations. Thermodynamic investigations revealed that the radical formation of cellulose that initiates the hydrogel process can occur through the breaking of the homolytic covalent bonds C6–OH and C3–OH. The results show that the reaction of CNF with monomers is thermodynamically favorable in the decreasing order of AM, AA, and MBA. The kinetic study also indicates that the reaction kinetics of CNF with AM is faster than with AA which is much faster than with MBA. Overall, this study has elucidated some of the key chemical characteristics that impact the derivatization of nanocellulose structures to produce advanced renewable bioproducts.

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